Current Scholarship
Humanization as Money: Modern Monetary Theory and the Critique of Race

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Authors: Diren Valayden & Jakob Feinig

In this article, Professors Valayden and Feinig build on the work of Frantz Fanon and Paulo Freire to develop a relational understanding of dehumanization and humanization through money. They first show that Fanon and Freire share a critical normative vision of humanization, which they conceptualize as that which occurs when people reject dehumanizing practices that deny their agency, begin to grasp their world-in-common, and emerge as historical agents who remake it. In a second step, Professors Valayden and Feinig advance Fanon’s and Freire’s vision by identifying the constitutive and dehumanizing role of money in liberalism’s ontological commitments, and develop a humanizing monetary ontology. They show how John Locke’s theory of “monetary individualism” is also a monetary theory of race that constitutes the liberal ontology and propose an approach to humanization grounded in Modern Monetary Theory (MMT).

Diren Valayden & Jakob Feinig, “Humanization as Money: Modern Monetary Theory and the Critique of Race” Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development (Volume 13, Number 2, Summer 2022): 146-157,

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